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Proteomic depletion, antitrypsin: PMAP

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    A1AT: Alpha-1-antitrypsin. A1AT is inhibitor of serine proteases. Its primary target is elastase, but it also has a moderate affinity for plasmin and thrombin. Inhibits trypsin, chymotrypsin and plasminogen activator. The aberrant form inhibits insulin-induced NO synthesis in platelets, decreases coagulation time and has proteolytic activity against insulin and plasmin.
    Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions. The term "proteomics" was coined to make an analogy with genomics, the study of the genes. An interesting use of proteomics is using specific protein biomarkers to diagnose disease. A number of techniques allow to test for proteins produced during a particular disease, which helps to diagnose the disease quickly. Techniques include western blot, immunohistochemical staining, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or mass spectrometry. Proteins of interest to biological researchers are usually part of a very complex mixture of other proteins and molecules that co-exist in the biological medium. This presents two significant problems. First, the two ionization techniques used for large molecules only work well when the mixture contains roughly equal amounts of constituents, while in biological samples, different proteins tend to be present in widely differing amounts. If such a mixture is ionized using electrospray or MALDI, the more abundant species have a tendency to "drown" or suppress signals from less abundant ones. The second problem is that the mass spectrum from a complex mixture is very difficult to interpret because of the overwhelming number of mixture components. This is exacerbated by the fact that enzymatic digestion of a protein gives rise to a large number of peptide products.To contend with this problem, two methods are widely used to fractionate proteins, or their peptide products from an enzymatic digestion. The first method fractionates whole proteins and is called two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The second method, high performance liquid chromatography is used to fractionate peptides after enzymatic digestion. In some situations, it may be necessary to combine both of these techniques.
    Design & production: Kosi Gramatikoff, PhD; client: Beckman Coulter/GenWayBio
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